For every instance in **single-label classification datasets**, the entire probability mass belongs to a single class, and the rest are zero.

This is depicted below:

The issue is that, at times, such label distributions **excessively motivate** the model to learn the true class for every sample with pretty high confidence.

This can impact its generalization capabilities.

Label smoothing is a lesser-talked regularisation technique that elegantly addresses this issue.

As depicted above, with label smoothing:

We intentionally reduce the probability mass of the true class slightly.

The reduced probability mass is uniformly distributed to all other classes.

Simply put, this can be thought of as asking the model to be “less overconfident” during training and prediction while still attempting to make accurate predictions.

This makes intuitive sense as well.

The efficacy of this technique is evident from the image below:

In this experiment, I trained two neural networks on the Fashion MNIST dataset with the **exact same weight initialization**.

One without label smoothing.

Another with label smoothing.

The model with label smoothing resulted in a better test accuracy, i.e., better generalization.

Pretty handy, isn’t it?

#### When not to use label smoothing?

After using label smoothing for many of my projects, I have also realized that it is not well suited for all use cases.

So it’s important to know when you should not use it.

See, if you only care about getting the final prediction correct and improving generalization, label smoothing will be a pretty handy technique.

However, I wouldn’t recommend utilizing it if you care about:

Getting the prediction correct.

And understanding the

**model’s confidence**in generating a prediction.

This is because as we discussed above, label smoothing guides the model to become “less overconfident” about its predictions.

Thus, we typically notice a drop in the confidence values for every prediction, as depicted below:

On a specific test instance:

The model without label smoothing outputs 99% probability for class 3.

With label smoothing, although the prediction is still correct, the confidence drops to 74%.

This is something to keep in mind when using label smoothing.

Nonetheless, the technique is indeed pretty promising for regularizing deep learning models.

That said, L2 regularization is another common way to regularize models. Here’s a guide that explains its probabilistic origin: The Probabilistic Origin of Regularization.

Also, we discussed 11 techniques to supercharge ML models here: 11 Powerful Techniques To Supercharge Your ML Models.

You can download the code notebook for today’s issue here: Label Smoothing Notebook.

**👉 **Over to you: What other things need to be taken care of when using label smoothing?

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